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Ali, M.G., 2004, « Archéologie de l’esclavage aux Comores », in S. Fuma (éd.), Mémoire orale et esclavage dans les îles du Sud-Ouest de l’océan Indien : silences, oublis, reconnaissance, Saint Denis, Université de La Réunion et CRESOI, p. 197-220.
Allibert, C., 2000, « La chronique d’Anjouan par Said Ahmed Zaki (ancien cadi d’Anjouan) », Études Océan Indien, 29, p. 9-92.
Alpers, E.A., 1975, Ivory & slaves in East Central Africa, London, Heinemann and Berkeley & Los Angeles, University of California Press.
Alpers, E.A., 2009, East Africa and the Indian Ocean, Princeton, Markus Wiener.
Alpers, E.A., forthcoming, “Africa’s Indian Ocean islands”, in T. Falola (ed.), African islands.
Alpers, E.A., Hopper, M.S., 2008, « Parler en son nom ? Comprendre les témoignages d’esclaves africains originaires de l’océan Indien (1850–1930) », Annales : Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 63 (4), p. 799-828.
Alpers, E.A., Zimba, B., 2009, “British abolition in southeast Africa: The first 50 years”, Quarterly Bulletin of the National Library of South Africa, 63 (1-2), p. 5-15.
Bang, A. K., 2003, Sufis and scholars of the sea: Family networks in East Africa, 1860-1925, London, RoutledgeCurzon.
Blanchy, S., 2004, « Cités, citoyenneté et territorialité dans l’île de Ngazidja (Comores) », Journal des Africanistes, 74 (1-2), p. 341-380.
Blanchy, S., 2013, « L’esclavage à Ngazidja (Comores). Approche ethnohistorique », in H. Médard, M.-L. Derat, T. Vernet, M.P. Ballarin (éds), Traites et esclavages en Afrique orientale et dans l’océan Indien, Paris, Karthala et CIRESC, p. 373-412.
Clendennen, G.W., Nottingham, P.M., 2000, William Sunley and David Livingstone: A tale of two consuls, African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Damir, B.A., Boulinier, G., Ottino, P., 1985, Traditions d’une lignée royale des Comores : L’Inya Fwambaya de Ngazidja, Paris, Éditions L’Harmattan.
Denis, I., 2012, Intérêts de la France dans l’océan Indien : Présence militaire à Mayotte, PhD Thesis, Université Paris IV-Sorbonne.
Gevrey, A., n.d. , Essai sur les Comores, [Dzaoudzi], Editions du Baobab.
Gueunier, N.J., 1994, Les chemins de l’Islam à Madagascar, Paris, Éditions L’Harmattan et Nanterre, Éditions Man Safara.
Horton, M.C., Middleton, J., 2000, The Swahili, Oxford and Malden, MA, Blackwell Publishers.
Madan, A.C., 1887, Kiungani: or, Story and history from Central Africa. Written by boys in the schools of the Universities’ Mission to Central Africa, London, George Bell and Sons.
Martin, J., 1983, Comores : Quatre îles entre pirates et planteurs, 2 vol., Paris, L’Harmattan.
Monnier, J.-E., 2006, Esclaves de la canne à sucre : Engagés et planteurs à Nossi-Bé, Madagascar 1850–1880, Paris, L’Harmattan.
Pawałczak, M., 2010, The state and the stateless. The Sultanate of Zanzibar and the East African mainland: Politics, economy and society, 1837–1888, Warszawa, Instytut Historyczny Uniwesytetu Warszawskiego.
Prestholdt, J., 2008, Domesticating the world: African consumerism and the genealogies of globalization, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University of California Press.
Roberts, S.S., n.d., “Screw gunboats (2nd Class)”, at http://www.shipscribe.com/marvap/532a.pdf. Accessed 3 November 2013.
Rockel, S.J., 2000, “‘A nation of porters’: The Nyamwezi and the labour market in nineteenth-century Tanzania”, The Journal of African History, 41 (2), p. 173-195.
Said Bakari Bin Sultani Ahmed, 1977, The Swahili Chronicle of Ngazija, édité par L. Harries, Bloomington, Indian University African Studies Program.
Saleh, I., 1936, A short history of the Comorians in Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika Standard.
Seach, J., n.d., “Kartala Volcano – John Seach”, http://www.volcanolive.com/karthala.html. Accessed 17 May 2009.
Subrahmanyam, S., 1997, “Connected histories: Notes towards a reconfiguration of Early Modern Eurasia”, Modern Asian Studies, 31 (3), p. 735-762.
Tabibou, I.A., 2004, « Les Makois à la Grande Comore », in S. Fuma (éd.), Mémoire orale et esclavage dans les îles du Sud-Ouest de l’océan Indien : silences, oublis, reconnaissance, Saint Denis, Université de La Réunion and CRESOI, p. 221-230.
Tibbetts, G.R., 1971, Arab navigation in the Indian Ocean before the coming of the Portuguese, London, The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
Vérin, P., 1994, Les Comores, Paris, Éditions Karthala.
Walker, I., 2014, “Identity and citizenship among the Comorians of Zanzibar, 1886–1963”, in A. Sheriff, E. Ho (eds), The Indian Ocean: Oceanic connections and the creation of new societies, London, Hurst, p. 239-266.
S. Subrahmanyam, 1997, p. 745.
Although there are occasional references to northwest Madagascar in this paper, they are mostly incidental to the networks I describe herein.
The most detailed study of the internal history of Ngazidja is B.A. Damiret al., 1985; for the wars of the nineteenth century, see p. 77-87 and J. Martin, 1983, vol. 1, p. 354-388.
See, e.g., M. Horton, J. Middleton, 2000, p. 130 and sources cited therein.
Said Bakari Bin Sultani Ahmed, 1977, p. 66, § 19.5.
B.A. Damir et al., 1985, p. 81-83. For the dates of Buisson’s command, see J. Martin, 1983, vol. 1, p. 562 n. 273, p. 584 n. 140; for some details on his career, see I. Denis, 2012, p. 286, 287, 291. La Décidée was a French-designed screw gunboat (2nd class) built at Toulon in 1861 and commissioned two years later. It remained commissioned until 1884 and was broken up a year later. It had a wood hull and a displacement of 359 tonnes. “The type was defined as one with relatively powerful artillery, great mobility, restrained dimensions, and shallow draft. A flat bottom and two false keels permitted the ships to beach themselves and remain high and dry for the duration of a low tide. The ships were intended for coastal operations in European waters, but were also to be useful for river operations in the colonies. […] They had three masts with square sails on the foremast” (S.S. Roberts, n.d.). Among numerous references to the activities of La Décidée during this period, see I. Denis, 2012, p. 198, 221, 225, 231, 239, 248, 249.
For an overview of the military forces of Zanzibar around this time, see M. Pawełczak, 2010, p. 238-249.
National Archives, United Kingdom, Kew, London, Foreign Office (hereafter FO) 84/1645, p. 324, n.d. but one of 25 enclosures in Frederick Holmwood to Sir John Kirk, Zanzibar, 15 November 1883. Konop is a Polish surname, but there is no one named Konop in the standard history of the UMCA.
FO 84/1645, p. 321. The composition of this “Nyamwezi” force raises a number of intriguing questions about the fate of “liberated Africans” at Zanzibar. It would also be interesting to see if there is any mention of the enlistment of UMCA mission “boys” in the UMCA archives (which are housed in the Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House, University of Oxford). It certainly is not part of the official history of the UMCA. For one perspective on Nyamwezi labor during this period, see S.J. Rockel, 2000; for more on the Nyamwezi force, see FO 84/1623, p. 165, Report by Consul Holmwood, Inclosure 2 in Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 18 November 1882.
Antankarana was a small kingdom at the north of Madagascar in the province of Antsiranana. For earlier examples of seeking mercenaries from Madagascar in the political struggles of Ngazidja, see M.G. Ali, 2004, p. 208, 218.
B. Damir et al., 1985, p. 84-87; J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, p. 25-28.
E. Alpers, B. Zimba, 2009.
The most extensive analysis of the system of the procurement of engagés during its heyday in the 1850s is by J.-E. Monnier, 2006, especially p. 47-52, 99-176. For Mayotte, see A. Gevrey, n.d. , p. 166-70, and J. Martin, 1983, vol. 1, p. 252-256.
Quoted in G.W. Clendenon, P.M. Nottingham, 2000, p. 7.
J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, p. 242 n. 17.
J. Prestholdt, 2008, p. 13-33.
FO 84/1619, draft of telegram from Granville to Miles, 11 February 1882, p. 18.
J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, p. 25, 252, n. 65.
FO 84/1619, Granville to Miles, 1 April 1882, p. 27 ff and 30 June 1882, p. 36.
FO 84/1621, p. 56; see also FO 84/1643, p. 13, Holmwood to Hill, Zanzibar, 1 March 1883.
FO 84/1621, Miles to Granville in W.B. Cracknall to Miles, received 2 May 1882, reporting on these events, p. 55-56, also enclosing Admiralty Court, Zanzibar, Cause No. 6 of 1882, S.B. Miles, 24 April 1882, condemning the Futeh El Kheir, p. 59-60 and “Certificate as to Destruction of Prize” for same, 20 April 1882, p. 63; cf. J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, p. 253 n. 70.
FO 84/1621, for Salim b. Azzar’s memorandum, p. 75-78; Garforth to Captain Percy Luxmoore, Eclipse at Sea, 20 April 1882, “Relative to Political affairs in Comoro Island,” p. 80-81.
FO 84/1619, Granville to Holmwood, 21 July 1882, p. 40.
FO 84/1619, Granville to Miles, 2 September 1882, enclosing Kirk to Hill, St. Leonards, 31 August 1882, p. 47.
For the texts of the treaties with the first two see FO 881/4698, Treaty with the Sultan of Johanna, Bambao, 10 October 1882; FO 881/4699, Treaty with the Sultan of Mohilla, Doani, Mohilla, 24 October 1882. This Bambao is a village on the eastern side of Nzwani (see Map 2) where the Sultan had a sugar plantation and is not to be confused with the Sultanate of Bambao on the western side of Ngazidja (see Map 3).
FO 84/1623, Confidential Print, Inclosure 1, Holmwood to Granville, “Sultany” off Grand Comoro, 29 October 1882, p. 3 (p. 158 in bound volume). In his journal entry for 14 October 1882, Holmwood writes that “the Johanna men had announced their intentions of ravaging the whole country,” p. 17 (p. 165).
FO 84/1623, Confidential Print, Inclosure 2, Holmwood’s report on Ngazidja, p. 15 (p. 164).
For a brief mention of M. Godin, see J. Martin, 1983, vol. 1, p. 257.
FO 84/1623, Confidential Print, Inclosure 2, Holmwood’s report on Ngazidja, p. 16 and 18 (p. 164-165).
FO 84/1623, Inclosure 2, Holmwood’s journal entry for 8 October 1882, p. 7-8 (p. 160).
FO 84/1623, Inclosure 2, Holmwood’s journal entry for 23 October 1882, p. 14 (p. 163).
FO 84/1623, p. 198, Holmwood to Miles, Z, 21 November 1882.
FO 84/1623, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 18 November 1882, p. 155-156. According to FO 84/1643, draft responses for Granville to Miles, the Foreign Secretary agreed that Great Britain’s interests “are not sufficient to call for any active interference in regard to the suppression of the Slave Trade”, p. 3-6, quoted at p. 5.
FO 84/1623, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 30 November 1882, p. 196 and related documents enclosed in Holmwood to Miles, Zanzibar, 21 November 1882, p. 198, 202-212.
FO 84/1644, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 27 April 1883, p. 204, underlining in pencil, not in original copy. For a brief summary of the twentieth century eruptions of Karthala and a list of earlier ones, see J. Seach, n.d.
FO 84/1644, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 27 April 1883, p. 204, underlining in pencil, not in original copy.
FO 84/1644, Kirk’s note on Miles’ report, p. 207.
FO 84/1644, Miles to Granville, 27 April 1883, p. 234 with enclosures regarding its condemnation, p. 236-239. Original letter also in Zanzibar National Archives (hereafter ZNA) AA1/48.
FO 841644, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 23 June 1883, p. 310.
FO 84/1645, Sultan Abdullah, Statement of Slave Dhow taken by King of Johanna, 25 April 1883, p. 23v; Sultan Abdullah to H.M. Consul and Political Agent at Zanzibar, Mutsamudu, 12 May 1883, p. 31-33; FO 84/1644, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 23 June 1883, indicates 147 captives, p. 312; FO 84/1645, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 7 August 1883 for 103 disembarked at Zanzibar, p. 15-17, original letter also in ZNA AA1/48.
FO 84/1645, Kirk to Granville, Zanzibar, 8 October 1883, p. 167-168.
FO 84/1645, Kirk to Granville, Zanzibar, 10 October 1883, p. 181.
FO 84/1645, Kirk to Granville, Zanzibar, 23 November 1883, p. 257.
FO 84/1645, Holmwood to Kirk, HMS Tourmaline off Mohilla, 4 November 1883, quoted at p. 270v-271. Original in ZNA AA1/48.
FO 84/1645, p. 272v-273.
FO 84/1645, p. 274v-275v. For the official Portuguese announcement of the abortive treaty to supply engagés from Ibo to Mayotte and La Réunion, see FO 84/1623, Boletim Official do Governo Geral da Provincia de Moçambique, 21 October 1882, No. 44, p. 177.
For a discussion of translation in assessing the testimonies of liberated slaves in eastern Africa and the Gulf, see E.A. Alpers, M.S. Hopper, 2008.
ZNA AA1/48, n.d., but presumably no later than 4 November 1883, when an exact copy was made that is now included in FO 84/1645, p. 285-287v.
Probably meaning a baggala rather than a batil, a “double ended boat now used for pearl diving” in the Gulf. See G.R. Tibbetts, 1971, p. 48.
The reference is to the aged but still powerful “Queen of Domoni”, Boeni Djoumbe Matche Halima: see J. Martin, 1983, vol. 1, p. 253, 400 n. 100 and vol. 2, p. 16, 84, 91.
Dr. Benjamin Wilson was surgeon on board a whaler from New Bedford, Massachusetts, who in 1872 settled on Nzwani with a 30 year lease of 2,000 hectares from Sultan Abdallah [Abdullah] III on the Patsi plains near the capital of Mutsamudu. Six years later, the Sultan ordered the inhabitants of three Patsi villages off their land so that Wilson could develop his plantation unimpeded by village cultivation. J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, p. 10-12; P. Vérin, 1994, p. 104-105; G.W. Clendennen, P.M. Nottingham, 2000, p. 71.
See note 24 above.
At Nzwani, “bushmen” referred to those who lived in the interior highlands of the island. See C. Allibert, 2000, p. 52-54.
FO/1645, p. 305 and v., “Colony of free bushmen settled at Dr. Wilson’s estate”. Wilson also employed hired slaves (vibarua in Kiswahili) on his estate. See FO/1645, p. 306, “Hired slaves residing and working on Patsy estate” with the opening statement that “We are sent by our masters to work with Dr. Wilson”. Wilson was also deposed by Holmwood and stated: “When I cannot obtain free labour I hire slaves of whom there are far more in the island than is necessary for its present needs”. Seeking to justify his actions, he added somewhat dubiously: “I hold an opinion from a well-known legal authority in the States that what I do is strictly lawful by American law”. FO/1645, p. 311 and v.
A.K. Bang, 2003, p. 54; S. Blanchy, 2013, p. 407, n. 3. See also FO 84/1645, p. 323v., for the statement to Holmwood by Sultan Abdullah b. Hamza of Moroni, who was then in exile at Mwali, where he indicates: “I wish therefore to retire to Zanzibar where so many of my relations and people have settled”.
FO 84/1645, p. 301 and v.
FO 84/1645, p. 301.
FO 84/1645, p. 302 and v.
FO 84/1645, p. 302v.
S. Blanchy, 2013, p. 396.
Quoted in I.A. Tabibou, 2004, p. 224.
FO 84/1645, p. 327v.
S. Blanchy, 2013, p. 396. According to one older Ngazidjan, those who were vanquished in local warfare were not infrequently reduced to or sold into slavery on the island: quoted in I.A. Tabibou, 2004, p. 223-224. For a note on the popular denial of the existence of slavery in the Comoros, see M.G. Ali, 2004, p. 205.
ZNA AA1/48, n.d., but presumably no later than 4 November 1883. A virtually exact copy is included in FO 84/1645, p. 288-290v.
The only variance from the original in ZNA AA1/48 in the FO 84/1645 copy is that Mariamo’s father is said to have owned two, rather than three, plantations.
Most likely Houani on the north coast of Mwali, i.e. facing directly towards the south end of Ngazidja.
Mitsamihuli is located on the extreme northwest coast of Ngazidja.
FO 84/1645, p. 16-17, Miles to Granville, Zanzibar, 7 August 1883; see also FO 84/1645, p. 23-33, for statements from the Sultan of Nzwani regarding this seizure.
FO 84/1645, p. 307. This would be the same Bueni Jumbe noted by Mlamali and identified in n. 49 above.
A.C. Madan, 1887, p. 43-44; A. Gevrey, n.d. , p. 89.
Not understanding the commercial networks of the Mozambique Channel, A.C. Madan, 1887, p. 47, n. 15 (p. 290) is mistaken in identifying Madagascar with the Comoros.
A.C. Madan, 1887, p. 47-48.
See E.A. Alpers, forthcoming.
For details, see J. Martin, 1983, vol. 2, 3rd part.
See, for example, A.K. Bang, 2003, p. 54, 131; I. Saleh, 1936; I. Walker, 2014.Haut de page